Poland became a unified kingdom in the first half of the 10th century, and officially adopted Catholicism in The fragmentation and loss of central authority could not have come at a worse time, with the Mongol Empire invading and wreaking havoc on the realm repeatedly in , , and lastly between Following its reunification, Poland experienced its golden age from the 14th till the 16th century, under the reigns of King Casimir III the Great and the monarchs of the Jagiellonian dynasty, whose rule extended from the Baltic to the Black and Adriatic seas. After uniting with Lithuania in , the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth became the largest country in Europe. During this era, the commonwealth attracted significant immigration from Germans, Jews, Armenians, and Dutch, due in part to the freedom of confession guaranteed by the state, and the commonwealth’s atmosphere of tolerance a rather exceptional feat at the time of the Holy Inquisition. Under the rule of the Vasa dynasty, the capital moved to Warsaw in Economically devastated by these events, the commonwealth’s power dramatically declined in the 18th century. Weak in foreign affairs and internally divided by its nobility szlachta , Russia, Prussia, and Austria seized on Poland-Lithuania’s weakness and coordinated three partitions in , , and Responding to these partitions and a drastic need for political reform, Poland became the first country in Europe and the second in the world after the United States to pass a written constitution in , a highly progressive and strong document for its time.
History[ edit ] Little is known about the beginnings of Tilburg. The name “Tilburg” first appeared in documents dating from AD but after that there was no mention for several centuries. In the later Middle Ages, Tilburg referred to a region rather than a particular town or village; its population was largely in a couple of hamlets, one of which was known as “Eastern Tilburg” Oost-Tilburg , which was later reflected in the name of Oisterwijk “Eastern Quarter”.
The district with its neighbourhoods consists mostly of small brick houses and apartment buildings, except for Zorgvlied, which contains more expensive, free-standing houses.
Against all odds, she survived there for almost two years. Her left forearm is bandaged. In the end, she had it removed after she came to England. Ostensibly now a Home Counties widow, living in a comfortable flat in Harpenden, Hertfordshire, Kitty remains vigorous at Most who survived Auschwitz entered the concentration camp just a few months before the end of the war. Kitty endured it for almost two years: She was 12 when war broke out and her family left behind a comfortable home in western Poland and fled the advancing tanks.
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Name of Poland The origin of the name Poland derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans Polanie that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the early Slavic word pole field. In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites Lechici , which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I.
The ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of these groups have been hotly debated; the time and route of the original settlement of Slavic peoples in these regions lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented. The Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko’s state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism.
This report of his murder was used as proof that Jews should not be appointed to important positions.
The Temple was destroyed. According to Josephus, some 1, , Jews perished during the revolt and another 97, were taken captive. This marked the first time that a disability was imposed on religious grounds. Anyone who tried to deny their Jewish origin was subjected to a humiliating examination especially under the reign of Domitian, brother of Titus. The Roman Governor, L. Valerius Catullus, had them executed.
At the same time the Governor also murdered a few thousand wealthy Jews and appropriated their property. He played an active part in the capture of the Galilee during the Jewish revolt. Upon Vespasian’s appointment as ruler of Rome, he was given command of the Roman forces in Eretz-Israel. Titus’ name is forever linked to the devastation of the Temple and the brutality of the destruction of Jerusalem. This is based on the writings of Tacitus, a Roman historian.
Josephus tried to whitewash Titus and claim that he was against the burning of the Temple. According to talmudic legend Titus challenged God to punish him, where upon God sent in a gnat which ate at his brain causing him terrible headaches until he died. Upon his death he ordered his body to be burned and his ashes scattered so as to prevent the “God of the Jews” from punishing him.
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Countless Polish civilians were ruthlessly rounded up, tortured, placed in concentration camps, and executed.
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Idris II built an additional, and competing city Al-‘Aliya on the other side which became his capitol.
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From their ashes, the infant Second Polish Republic quickly became embroiled in violent territorial disputes with other new post-war states, including Czechoslovakia to the south, and revolutionary Soviet Russia to the east, which it fought a bloody war against between to retain independence.
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As a deeply religious country, many important days on the Catholic calendar are public holidays, with the church becoming the main center of life in various cities, towns, and villages.
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In it he prohibited Jews and pagans from practicing law or holding public offices in order to prevent them from being subjected to or influenced by them.
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In , however, the castle was pulled down to make way for a factory, but the name lives on, in the city arms and logo.